IC2633  Interpreting and Confessing for the World: God, Evil and Suffering

Instructors: T. Fretheim, P. Sponheim

Fall Semester, 2006-07

 

 

I.    Course Description:

An examination of ways in which the Bible and the Christian tradition consider evil and suffering and how such consideration informs the task of interpreting and confessing the Gospel in the contemporary world.  Special attention is given to implications for pastoral reflection and practice.

 

II.  Objectives:

1.   Increase self-awareness regarding the issues of evil and suffering.

2.   Increase appreciation for the way in which various persons have reflected on their experience of these realities.

3.   Become more aware of differing ways in which interpretation and confession interact with particular contexts in view.

4.   Acquire a knowledge of the biblical texts, hermeneutical issues, and theological perspectives associated with evil and suffering.

5.   Analyze the various theological approaches taken to evil and suffering and assess their claims to truth, fidelity and efficacy.

6.   Learn better how to use the resources of the biblical, confessional, and systematic traditions with respect to these issues for preaching, teaching, and pastoral care.

 

III. Books Required:

1.   Elie Wiesel, Night, 1960

2.   Douglas John Hall, God and Human Suffering, 1986.

3.   Marjorie Suchocki, In God’s Presence: Theological Reflections on Prayer, 1996.

4.   Terence Fretheim, The Suffering of God, 1984.

  1. Paul Sponheim, Speaking of God: Relational Theology, 2006.
  2. Stanley Hauerwas, God, Medicine, and Suffering, 1990.

7.   J. Polkinghorne, Quarks, Chaos, and Christianity, 1994.

 

IV. Books Recommended:

See attached bibliography.

 

V.  Course Procedures:

The two class hours on Tuesday (3rd-4th hours) will be devoted to presentations by the instructors; one hour on Thursday (2nd, 3rd, or 4th hour) will be given to preceptorial instructor-led discussion of issues raised by the readings and class presentations.  Normally, the two presentations for the week will be devoted to one topic, addressed from an Old Testament and a systematics perspective.

 

VI. Course Requirements:

1.   Weekly Reading for Preceptorials, specified in the course schedule below.  One page of writing is required for four preceptorials of your choice.  These are to be handed in to the instructor whose discipline is most closely addressed in the paper by 5:00 p.m. Wednesday (the day before the precept meets).  These may take the form of the formulation of a question raised by the reading, and some reflection on it, or a statement of some insight received from the reading, with reflection on its importance for your own theological perspective as it relates to ministry situations in which the problem of evil and suffering is present.  It is expected that all students will be present and will have read assignments for each week so that the precepts may be used to the best advantage of all.

2.   An Integrative Paper.  A pastoral-theological issue in connection with which the understanding of God in relationship to evil and suffering is especially important.  Some possible issues: a child dies of cancer; a murder; a family is killed in an automobile accident; an earthquake or other natural disaster devastates a community; a suicide; prayers for healing; a child is born with Down's syndrome; the holocaust.  

      It is expected that the textbooks of the course will be used in the preparation of the 2nd and 3rd segments of the integrative paper. Other resources may, of course, be used.

This paper is to be submitted in three parts, according to the following schedule and pages.

These three parts address the issues as described in the catalog description for this course area: The concern is (1) to address a challenge/issue encountered in pastoral practice, (2) in connection with which students learn to gather scriptural, confessional, and theological resources and assess their claims to fidelity, truth and efficacy, and (3) to attend explicitly to the activities of interpreting and confessing the 'story' of God's presence and mission as befits the specific situation.

 

(1)   Due Thursday, Sept. 21st, 5:00pm.

 

A three-page statement in which the pastoral situation relating to an experience of evil/suffering is identified and briefly described.  Draw together the questions and cries of pain (of yourself and others) that surface in such a time.  What are the God questions that arise in connection with this issue?  What are the challenges to the faith/tradition presented by the situation?

 

(2)   Due Thursday, Nov. 16th, 5:00pm.

 

A five-page statement in which you frame the theological issues that would enable you to address these questions and for which you determine the scriptural, confessional, and theological resources that would be most helpful in addressing them.  What can you say of God that would be beneficial?

 

(3)  Due Wednesday, Dec. 20th, 5:00pm.

 

A three-page statement in which you develop interpreting and confessing strategies for conversing with a person in the midst of such an experience.  What sort of pastoral conversation would you develop?

VII.  Course Schedule.

 

1.      September 12th and 14th

Presentations: What is our topic?  What is at stake in this issue?  What are some of the challenges  presented to the faith/tradition?

            Read:   Wiesel, entirety

                        Fretheim, 1-33

                        Sponheim, 1-11

                        Walking with God in a Fragile World, pp. 3-21 (articles by Buechner & Coffin)

 

2.      September 19th and 21st

Presentations: How do we come to know God -- and so the kind of God God is? 
Revelation issues; theophany; faith and history; word of God; nature of metaphor

            Read:   Fretheim, 79-106

Hall, 13-30  

Polkinghorne, 1-35

 

3.   September 26th and 28th

Presentations: The problem of evil.  Moral, metaphysical and natural evil.  God the Creator's responsibility.  Challenge to theodicy.

Read:   Sponheim, 101-122
                  Hauerwas, 1-38

                        Polkinghorne, 36-50

(October 4th is the day of service)

4.      October 3rd and 5th

Presentations: The reality of suffering.  Pain and suffering; suffering and ambiguity; maturation and masochism.  Challenge to Christology.

            Read:  Hall, 31-92

5.       October 10th and 12th

Presentations: The book of Job and issues of suffering.  Does Job serve God for nothing? The nature of the book. Interpretations of the God speeches and the responses of Job (chaps. 38-42). Justice and mercy.

Read:   J.G. Janzen, Job, pp. 1-24, 225-230
Fretheim, 34-71

 

6.      October 17th and 19th

Presentations: Where in the world is God?  The God/world relationship; formal concerns.
Issues of omnipresence; divine temporality; immanence/transcendence.

            Read:   Hauerwas, 39-95
                        Suchocki, 15-30
                        Sponheim, 13-35

 

 

7.      October 26th (October 24th  = Reading Day)

An opportunity to review the class up to this point, with possible mid-course corrections.

 

8.   October 31st and November 2nd

Presentation: What is the nature of the will of God for the world?  Word of God and will of God.  Distinctions within the will of God.  Freedom and commitment.  Will and desire.

Read:  Sponheim, 37-58
                 Hauerwas, 97-151

 

9.      November 7th and 9th

Presentation: How does God go about doing what is to be done?  Divine agency; power of God; miracles; the unity of God's work.

Read:  Fretheim, 71-78
           Hall, 93-121.

           Polkinghorne, 79-89
           Sponheim, 59-79

 

10. November 14th and 16th

Presentations: Is God affected by the world?  Immutability; divine suffering; divine repentance.

            Read:  Fretheim, 107-148
                       Suchocki, 31-41

 

11. November 20-24 (Thanksgiving Break)

 

 

12. November 28th and 30th  

Presentations: Human responsibility and divine dependence. The creator’s dependence on the creature. Human vocation and Christian obedience. Divine concurrence.

      Read:  Hall, 123-147

                       Polkinghorne, 51-61

 

13.  December 5th and 7th

Presentations: Do prayers have an effect on God?  Petition, intercession, agency issues.

            Read:  Polkinghorne, 62-78 
                       Suchocki, 1-14, 43-127
                       Sponheim, 83-100

 

14. December 12th and 14th

Presentations:  Where is God headed with the world?  God and the Final Future.  Eschatology; mission.

Read:   Polkinghorne, 90-100

 

15. December 19th

To be announced.       

 

VIII.    Miscellaneous

1. Grading.  For those who desire a letter grade in the course, notify one of the instructors by the end of the second week of the quarter.  Weight given to assignments:

            to the three parts of the major assignment (20-30-20%)

            to the precept participation, written and oral. (30%)

2.  Independent Study.  For those who wish to take a more independent track through the course, see one of the instructors within the first week of the quarter.

3. Office Hours  (or by appointment)

      Sponheim (BH 119)     Tuesday, 4:00-5:00 p.m.

                                          Thursday, 4:00-5:00 p.m.

 

      Fretheim (BH 106) Tuesday, 3:00-4:00 p.m.

Thursday, 3:00-4:00 p.m.

 

IC2633      God, Evil and Suffering: A Selective Bibliography

 

Books:

Adler, Mortimer. How to Think about God: A Guide for the Twentieth Century Pagan (Macmillan, 1980).

Albers, Robert. Shame: A Faith Perspective (Haworth, 1995).

Angelou, Maya. Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'fore I Die (Random House, 1971).

Allen, Diogenes. Traces of God in a Frequently Hostile World (Cowley, 1981).

Altizer, Thomas J.J. The Self Embodiment of God (Harper, 1977).

Armstrong, Karen et al. The Changing Face of God (Morehouse, 2000).

Baldwin, James. Another Country (Dell, 1962).

Balentine, S. The Hidden God: The Hiding of the Face of God in the Old Testament (Oxford, 1983).

Balentine, S. Prayer in the Hebrew Bible: The Drama of Divine-Human Dialogue (Augsburg, 1994).

Barrow, John and Frank Tipler. The Cosmological Anthropic Principel (Oxford, 1984).

Beker, J. Suffering and Hope: The Biblical Vision and the Human Predicament (Philadelphia, 1987).

Benjamin, Jessica. Bonds of Love: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and the Problem of Domination (Pantheon, 1988).

Birnbaum, David. God and Evil (KTAV, 1989).

Bloomquist, Karen L. and Stumme, John R., eds. The Promise of Lutheran Ethics (Fortress, 1998).

Blumenthal, D. Facing the Abusing God: A Theology of Protest (Westminster/John Knox, 1993).

Borg, Marcus. Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time (Harper, 1994).

Borg, Marcus. The God We Never Knew: Beyond Dogmatic Religion to a More Authentic Contemporary Faith (Harper, 1997).

Boyd, Gregory. God of the Possible (Baker, 2000).

Boyd, G. Satan and the Problem of Evil: Constructing a Trinitarian Warfare Theodicy (InterVarsity, 2001).

Bringle, Mary Louise. Despair: Sickness or Sin? (Abingdon, 1990).

Brock, Rita Nakashima. Journeys by Heart: A Christology of Erotic Power (Crossroad, 1991).

Brown, Alexandra. The Cross and Human Transformation (Fortress, 1995).

Brueggemann, W. Old Testament Theology: Essays on Structure, Theme, and Text (Fortress, 1992).

Brueggemann, W. Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy (Fortress, 1997).

Buechner, Frederick. Telling Secrets (Harper, 1991).

Burrell, David. Aquinas: God and Action (Notre Dame, 1979).

Cahn, S. & Shatz, D, eds. Questions about God: Today’s Philosophers Ponder the Divine (Oxford, 2002).

Carlson, Paula J. and Hawkins, Peter S., eds. Listening for God: Contemporary Literature and the Life of Faith (Augsburg/Fortress, 1994).

Case-Winters, Anna. God's Power (Westminster, 1990).

Cauthen, Kenneth. Science, Secularization and God (Abingdon, 1969).

Chopp, Rebecca. The Power to Speak: Feminism, Language and God (Crossroad, 1989).

Chopp, Rebecca. The Praxis of Suffering (Orbis, 1986).

Clayton, Phillip. God and Contemporary Science. (Edinburgh, 1997).

Cobb, John B. & C. Ives, eds. The Emptying God: A Buddhist-Jewish-Christian Conversation (Orbis, 1991).

Cobb, John B. and Pinnock, Clark H., eds. Searching for an Adequate God:  A Dialogue between Process and Free Will Theists (Eerdmans, 2000).

Cohen, Arthur. The Tremendum: A Theological Interpretation of the Holocaust (Crossroad, 1981).

Cohn-Sherbck, Dan.  Holocaust Theology (Lamp Press, 1989).

Collins, John. Does the Bible Justify Violence? (Fortress, 2004).

Cooke, Bernard.  The Distancing of God (Fortress, 1990).

Cowburn, J. Shadows and the Dark: The Problem of Suffering and Evil (London, 1979).

Cowdell, Scott.  A God for This World (Mowbray, 2000).

Craig, William Lane. Time and Eternity: Exploring God’s Relationship to Time (Crossway, 2001).

Craig, William Lane. God, Time and Eternity: The Coherence of Theism II: Eternity (Kluwer, 2001).

Creel, Richard.  Divine Impassibility (Cambridge, 1986).

Crenshaw, J. Defending God: Biblical Responses to the Problem of Evil (Oxford, 2005).

Crenshaw, J. (ed.) Theodicy in the Old Testament (Fortress, 1983).

Crenshaw, J.  A Whirlpool of Torment: Israelite Traditions of God as an Oppressive Presence (Fortress, 1984).

Cuppitt, Don.  Taking Leave of God (Crossroad, 1981).

Daly, Mary.  Beyond God the Father (Beacon, 1973).

Davaney, Sheila.  Divine Power (Fortress, 1986).

Davidson, R. The Courage to Doubt: Exploring an Old Testament Theme (London, 1983).

Davies, Paul.  God and the New Physics (Simon and Schuster, 1983).

Davis, Stephen.  Logic and the Nature of God (Eerdmans, 1983).

Davis, S.T. (ed.) Encountering Evil: Live Options in Theodicy (Atlanta, 1981).

Dawkins, Richard. River Out of Eden (Weidenfelt and Nicholson, 1995).

Day, Peggy. An Adversary in Heaven: Satan in the Hebrew Bible (Scholars, 1988).

Dell, Katharine. Shaking a Fist at God: Struggling with the Mystery of Undeserved Suffering (Triumph, 1997).

Ditmanson, Harold.  Grace in Experience and Theology (Augsburg, 1977).

Dillestone, Frederick. The Christian Understanding of the Atonement (Westminster, 1968).

Durrant, Michael.  The Logical Status of God (St.  Martins, 1983).

Erickson, Millard. God the Father Almighty (Baker, 1998).

Fabro, Cornelius.  God in Exile (Newman, 1957).

Fackenheim, E. God's Presence in History: Jewish Affirmations and Philosophical Reflections (New York, 1970).

Farley, Edward.  Good and Evil (Fortress, 1990).

Farley, Edward.  Divine Empathy (Fortress, 1996).

Farley, Wendy.  Tragic Vision and Divine Compassion (Westminster/J.Knox, 1990).

Fiddes, Paul.  The Creative Suffering of God (Oxford, 1988).

Forde, Gerhard.  Theology is for Proclamation (Fortress, 1990).

Fretheim, T. and Thompson, C. God, Evil and Suffering: Essays in Honor of Paul R. Sponheim (Word & World, 2000).

Gannssle, Gregory E. and Woodruff, David M, eds. God and Time: Four Views (InterVarsity, 2001) 

Garrison, Roman. Why are you Silent, Lord? (Sheffield, 2000).

Gerstenberger, Erhard. Yahweh the Patriarch: Ancient Images of God and Feminist Theology (Fortress, 1996).

Gilkey, Langdon.  Reaping the Whirlwind (Seabury, 1976).

Gnuse, Robert. The Old Testament and Process Theology (St. Louis: Chalice Press, 2000).

Grey, Mary. Introducing Feminist Images of God. (Sheffield, 2001).

Griffin, David.  God, Power and Evil (Westminster, 1976).

Griffin, David.  Evil Revisited: Responses and Reconsiderations (Albany, 1991).

Gruning, Herb. How In the World Does God Act? (University, 2000).

Gunton, Colin. The Promise of Trinitarian Theology, 2nd ed. (T & T Clark, 1997).

Gutierrez, G. On Job- God-Talk and The Suffering of the Innocent (Mary Knoll, 1987).

Halkes, Catharina J.M. New Creation- Christian Feminism and the Renewal of the Earth (Westminster/John Knox, 1989).

Hallman, Joseph.  The Descent of God (Fortress, 1991).

Hampson, Daphne.  Theology and Feminism (Blackwell, 1991).

Hampson, Daphne. Swallowing a Fishbone? (SPCK, 1996).

Hanson, R.P.C. The Attractiveness of God (J.  Knox, 1973).

Harbaugh, Gary. Act of God; Active God (Fortress, 2001).

Harding, Sandra and O'Barr, J. Sex and Scientific Inquiry (Chicago, 1987).

Harrison, Beverly Wildung.  Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb (Beacon, 1985).

Hartshorne, Charles.  Omnipotence and Other Theological Mistakes (SUNY, 1983).

Hasker, William.  God, Time and Knowledge (Cornell, 1989).

Haught, John F.  God After Darwin:  A Theology of Evolution (Westview, 2000).

Hebblethwaite, Brian. Evil, Suffering and Religion, rev. ed. (SPCK, 2000).

Helm Paul. Eternal God: A Study of God without Time (Clarendon, 1988).

Heschel, A. The Prophets, 2 vols. (New York, 1962).

Heyward, Carter.  The Redemption of God: A Theology of Mutual Relation (University, 1982).

Hick, John.  God Has Many Names (Westminster, 1982).

Hick, John.  Evil and the God of Love (Collins, 1977).

Hodgson, Peter.  God in History: Shapes of Freedom (Abingdon, 1989).

Hodgson, Peter.  Winds of the Spirit: A Constructive Christian Theology (Westminster/John Knox, 1994).

Humphries, W. The Tragic Vision and the Hebrew Tradition (Fortress, 1985).

Hultgren, A. Christ and His Benefits (Fortress, 1987).

Inbody, T.L.  The Transforming God: An Interpretation of Suffering and Evil (Westeminster/John Knox, 1997).

Jennings, Theodore.  Beyond Theism (Oxford, 1985).

Jenson, Robert.  The Triune Identity (Fortress, 1982).

Johnson, Elizabeth.  She Who Is: The Mystery of God in Feminist Theological Discourse (Crossroad, 1992).

Jungel, Eberhard.  God as the Mystery of the World (Eerdmans, 1983).

Kaufman, Gordon.  God the Problem (Harvard, 1972).

Keller, Catherine.  Apocalypse: Now and Then (Beacon, 1996).

Keller, Catherine. Face of the Deep (Routledge, 2003).

Keller, Catherine.  From a Broken Web: Separation, Sexism, and the Self (Beacon, 1986).

Kenny, Anthony.  The God of the Philosophers (Clarendon, 1979).

Kierkegaard, Soren.  The Sickness unto Death (Princeton, 1980).

Kimel, Alvin. This Is My Name Forever: The Trinity and Gender Language for God (Intervarsity, 2001).

King, Robert.  The Meaning of God (Fortress, 1973).

Kitamori, K. Theology of the Pain of God (Richmond, 1968).

Kohn, Alfie.  The Brighter Side of Human Nature (Basic, 1990).

Kraemer, David. Responses to Suffering in Classical Rabbinic Literature (Oxford, 1995).

Kung, Hans.  Does God Exist? (Doubleday, 1980).

Kushner, Harold.  When Bad Things Happen to Good People (Schocken, 1981).

Kyung, Chung Hyun.  The Struggle To Be the Sun Again (Orbis, 1990).

Laato, A. & J.C. de Moor.  Theodicy in the World of the Bible  (Brill, 2003).

LaCugna, Catherine.  God for Us:- The Trinity and Christian Life (Harper, 1991).

Lambrecht, Jan & Raymond Collins (eds.) God and Human Suffering (Louvain, 1990).

Lampe, Geoffrey.  God as Spirit (Clarendon, 1977).

Langford, James and Rouner, Leroy. Walking With God in a Fragile World (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003).

Leaman, Oliver. Evil and Suffering in Jewish Philosophy (Cambridge, 1995).

Lee, Jung Young.  The Theology of Change (Orbis, 1979).

Lester, Andrew D. (ed.) When Children Suffer: A Sourcebook for Ministry with Children in Crisis (Westminster, 1987).

Levenson, J. Creation and the Persistence of Evil (Harper & Row, 1988).

Levinas, Emmanuel. Totality and Infinity (Duquesne,. 1969).

Lewis, C.S.  A Grief Observed (Seabury, 1964).

Lewis, C.S.  The Problem of Pain (Macmillan, 1962).

Lindstrom, F.  God and the Origin of Evil (Lund, 1983).

Lindstrom, F.  Suffering and Sin: Interpretations of Illness in the Individual Complaint Psalms (Stockholm, 1994).

Lodahl, Michael.  Shekhinah/Spirit: Divine Presence in Jewish and Christian Religion (Paulist, 1992).

Mackie, John.  The Miracle of Theism (Oxford,- 1982).

Macquarrie, John.  In Search of Deity (SCM, 1986).

Marcus, Joel. Jesus and the Holocaust: Reflections on Suffering and Hope (Doubleday, 1997)

McFague, Sallie.  The Body of God (Fortress, 1993).

McFague, Sallie.  Models of God (Fortress, 1987).

McGill, Arthur.  Suffering: A Test of Theological Method (Westminster, 1982).

McWilliams, Warren.  The Passion of God (Mercer, 1985).

Marty, Martin.   A Cry of Absence (Harper, 1983).

Miles, Jack.  God: A Biography (Knopf, 1995).

Miles, M.  Carnal Knowing: Female Nakedness and Religious Meaning in the Christian West (Beacon, 1987).

Miller, P.  Sin and Judgment in the Prophets (Chico, 1982).

Miller, P.  They Cried to the Lord (Fortress, 1994).

Moltmann, Jurgen.  The Coming of God:  Christian Eschatology (Fortress, 1996).

Moltmann, Jurgen.  The Crucified God (Harper, 1974).

Moltmann, Jurgen.  God in Creation (SCM, 1985).

Moskop, John.  Divine Omniscience and Human Freedom (Mercer, 1984).

Mosley, J.K. The Impassibility of God (Cambridge, 1976).

Neiman, Susan. Evil in Modern Thought: An Alternative History of Philosophy (Princeton, 2002).

Nelson-Pallmeyer, Jack. Jesus Against Christianity (Trinity, 2001).

Nemo, Philippe. Job and the Excess of Evil (Duquesne, 1998).

Newsom, Carol A. The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imagination (Oxford: University Press, 2003).

Ngien, Dennis. The Suffering of God According the Martin Luther’s “Theologia Crucis” (Peter Lang, 1995).

Noddings, Nel. Women and Evil (California Press, 1989).

Nygren, Adners. Agape and Eros (SPCK, 1953).

Oduyoye, Mercy Amba.  Hearing and Knowing: Theological Reflections on Christianity in Africa (Orbis, 1986).

Owen, H.P. Concepts of Deity (Herder, 1971).

Padgett, Alan. God, Eternity and the Nature of Time (Macmillan, 1992).

Page, Ruth. Ambiguity and the Presence of God (SCM, 1985).

Pagels, Elaine. The Origin of Satan (Oxford, 1995).

Pailin, David. God and the Processes of Reality (Routledge, 1989).

Pannenberg, Wolfhart.  Systematic Theology, 3 vols. (Eerdmans, 1991-97).

Peacocke, Arthur. God and the New Biology (Harper, 1986).

Peacocke, Arthur. God and Science:  A Quest for Christian Credibility (SCM, 1996).

Peacocke, Arthur.  Paths from Science toward God (One World, 2001).

Pederson, Ann. God, Creation and All That Jazz (Chalice, 2001).

Penchansky, David.  What Rough Beast? Images of God in the Hebrew Bible (Westminster, 1999).

Penchansky, David and Redditt, Paul eds.  Shall Not the Judge of All the Earth Do What is Right? (Eisenbrauns, 2000).

Peters, Ted. God as Trinity (Westminster/J. Knox, 1993).

Peters, Ted. God--The World's Future: Systematic Theology for a Postmodern Era (Fortress, 1992).

Peterson, Gregory.  Minding God: Theology and the Cognitive Sciences (Fortress, 2003).

Pike, Nelson ed. God and Evil (Prentice Hall, 1964).

Pike, Nelson. God and Timelessness (Routledge, 1970).

Pinn, Anthony B. Why Lord? Suffering and Evil in Black Theology (Continuum, 1995).

Pinnock, Clark. Most Moved Mover: A Theology of God’s Openness (Baker, 2001).

Pinnock, Clark, et al. The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God (InterVarsity, 1994).

Placher, William. Narratives of a Vulnerable God (Westminster/J. Knox, 1994).

Placher, William. The Domestication of Transcendence (Westminster/John Knox, 1996).

Polkinghorne, John and Welker, Michael eds. The End of the World and the Ends of God: Science and Theology on Eschatology (Trinity Press International, 2000).

Polkinghorne, John ed.  Creation as Kenosis (Eerdmans, 2001).

Prestige, G.L. God in Patristic Thought (SPCK, 1952).

Rankka`, Kristine. Women and the Value of Suffering (Liturgical Press, 1998).

Reventlow, H. & Y. Hoffman, eds. Justice and Righteousness (Sheffield, 1992).

Ricoeur, Paul. The Symbolism of Evil (Beacon, 1967).

Robinson, H.W. The Cross in the Old Testament (London, 1955).

Robinson, H.W. Suffering Human and Divine (New York, 1939).

Rossing, Barbara.  Rapture Exposed: The Message of Hope in the Book of Revelation (Westview, 2004).

Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Gaia and God: An Ecofeminist Theology of Earth Healing (Harper Collins, 1992).

Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Sexism and God-Talk (Beacon, 1983).

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Sanders, John. The God Who Risks: A Theology of Providence (InterVarsity,. 1998).

Sands, Kathleen M. Escape from Paradise: Evil and Tragedy in Feminist Theology (Fortress, 1994).

Santmire, Paul. The Travail of Nature: The Ambiguous Ecological Promise of Christian (Fortress, 1985).

Scarry, Elaine. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World (Oxfod, 1985).

Scharlemann, Robert.  The Being of God and the Experience of Truth (Seabury, 1981).

Schwarz, H. Evil: A Historical and Theological Perspective (Fortress, 1995).

Segundo, Jon. Evolution and Guilt (Orbis, 1974).

Sia, Miriam F. and Santiago Sia. From Suffering to God (St. Martin’s, 1994).

Simundson, D. Faith Under Fire: Biblical Interpretations of Suffering (Minneapolis, 1980).

Simundson, D.  here is God in My Suffering? (Minneapolis, 1983).

Soelle, Dorothee. Suffering (Fortress, 1975).

Sontag, Frederick.  ivine Perfection: Possible Ideas of God (Harper, 1962).

Sponheim, Paul.  od: The Question and the Quest (Fortress, 1985).

Stackhouse, Max. Can God Be Trusted? Faith and the Challenge of Evil (Oxford, 1998).

Stead, Christopher.  Divine Substance (Oxford, 1977).

Suchocki, Marjorie.  The End of Evil (Suny, 1988).

Suchocki, Marjorie.  The Fall to Violence: Original Sin in Relational Theology (Continuum, 1994).

Surlin, K. Theology and-the Problem of Evil (Oxford, 1986).

Swinburne, Richard.  The Existence of God (Oxford, 1979).

Swinburne, R. Providence and the Problem of Evil (Oxford, 1998).

Tambasco, Anthony J. (ed.) The Bible on Suffering: Social and Political Implications (Paulist, 2001).

Tamez, Elsa. The Amnesty of Grace (Abingdon, 1993).

Tanner, Kathryn.  God and Creation in Christian Theology: Tyranny or Empowerment? (Blackwell, 1988).

Taylor, Mark C.  Nots (University of Chicago, 1993).

Taylor, Mark Kline.  Remembering Esperanza (Orbis, 1990).

Thomsen, Mark W.  Christ Crucified: A 21st Century Missiology of the Cross (Lutheran University, 2004).

Tilley, Terrence. The Evils of Theodicy (Wipf & Stock, 2000).

Tippler, Frank.  The Physics of Immortality (Doubleday, 1994).

Torrance, Thomas.  Divine and Contingent Order (Oxford, 1981).

Towner, S. How God Deals with Evil (Philadelphia, 1976).

Turner, Denys. The Darkness of God (Cambridge, 1995).

Vanhoozer, Kevin. Nothing Greater, Nothing Better: Essays on the Love of God (Eerdmans, 2001).

Ward, Keith.  Divine Action (Collins, 1990).

Ward, Keith.  God, Chance, and Necessity (One World, 1996).

Ward, Keith.  God, Faith and the New Millennium (One World, 1998).

Ward, Keith.  Rational Theology and the Creativity of God (Blackwell, 1982).

Weatherhead, Leslie.  The Will of God (Abingdon, 1944, 1972).

Webb, Stephen.  The Gifting of God (Oxford, 1996).

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Articles:

Berry, Wanda Warren, "Images of Sin and Salvation in Feminist Theology", Angilican Theological Review,    Jan., 1978.

Fowler, James W., "Bio-Cultural Roots of Shame, Conscience and Sin", CTNS Bulletin, Winter, 1993.

Goetz, Ronald. "The Suffering God: The Rise of a New Orthodoxy", The Christian Century, April, 1986.

Lowe, Mary Elise. “Woman Oriented Hamartiologies: A Survey of the Shift From Powerlessness to Right Relationship,” Dialogue, Summer, 2000.

Middleton, J.Richard. “Creation Founded in Love: Breaking Rhetorical Expectations in Genesis 1:1-2:3,” Sacred Text, Secular Times: The Hebrew Bible in the Modern World, ed. Leonard Jay Greenspoon and Bryan F. LeBeau (Creighton, 2000).

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