Abraham and Sarah, Hagar and Ishmael OT6155S6

T. Fretheim, Instructor

Fall semester (second half), 2005-2006



I.  Purpose of the Course

            A study of Genesis 12-25 with a special view to theological issues and contemporary usage in teaching and preaching.

            These chapters have long been of central concern to Christians, Jews and Muslims. At the same time, recent studies have sharply called into question certain dimensions of these texts. Such concerns include consideration of the role of women, God’s promised commitment to Hagar and Ishmael, Abraham and the “abuse” of Isaac, and Sodom and Gomorrah with its issues of natural disaster and same-sex sexual behavior.



II. Course Procedures

            Three hours, Tuesday evenings, 7-10 (6:30-9:30?). The first four weeks will include presentations by the instructor with discussion as desired by class participants. At least one Bill Moyer video will be viewed. The last two weeks (Dec 6, 13) are devoted to presentation and discussion of student projects (see below).



III. Course Requirements

A. Readings.

Readings as assigned in the schedule below. Readings from Feiler’s Abraham and Kaltner‘s Ishmael Instructs Isaac and from one commentary (J. G. Janzen or another of your choice).  Two book chapter/articles as specified in the class schedule.


B. Writing.

            1. Responses to specific biblical texts. A 1-2 page response to two of the following three biblical texts and related commentary reading, according to the schedule below. Each response shall consist of:  (1) A personal theological question raised by the readings; (2) Some initial reflections on it. For those who wish to work with the Hebrew text, see the instructor.

            November 8 – Gen 15:6

            November 15 – Gen 22:15-18

            November 29 – Gen 17:1-8


            2. A Course Paper and Class Presentation. Write an 8-10 page research paper on one of the topics listed below, or on another topic to be negotiated with the instructor. This paper is to be handed in by Thursday noon, December 15. Your decision regarding topic, with a preliminary bibliography, is to be submitted to the instructor in writing by Monday, November 14. During one of the class periods noted below you are to lead the class in a discussion of your topic. A 2-page summary of your questions/insights is to be handed out to the class by noon on the day before the day of your presentation.




Dec. 6        a.  ______________________________

                  b.  ______________________________

                  c.  ______________________________

                  d.  ______________________________

                  e. _______________________________

                  f. _______________________________


(handout to class by noon on Mon., Dec. 5)


Dec. 13      a.  ______________________________

                  b.  ______________________________

                  c.  ______________________________

                  d.  ______________________________

                  e.  ______________________________

                  f.  ______________________________


            (handout to class by noon on Mon., Dec. 12)



Possible Paper Topics

See the bibliographies for possible resources. At least one representative from the pre-critical era is to be included in your research (e.g., Calvin, Luther). You are welcome to consult with the instructor about possible resources.  Other topics are welcome.

-- A closer look at any single pericope in Genesis 12-25.

-- The character Sarah in Genesis 12-25 (or any specific text) or in Old Testament or NT.

-- The character Hagar in Genesis 12-25 (or any specific text) or the NT.

-- The character Ishmael in Genesis 12-25 (or any specific text).

-- The character Abraham in a book from the rest of the Old Testament or in the NT.

-- A closer look at a key theme in Genesis 12-25 (e.g., election; covenant; circumcision)

-- A closer look at the same-sex activity in Genesis 19.

-- The theological significance of Genesis 12:1-3

-- The theological significance of Genesis 15:6.

-- The imaging of God in Genesis 12-25 (or any section thereof)

-- The use of Gen 12-25 by (one of) the Gospels, Paul, or other NT book.

-- The use of Genesis 12-25 (or a pericope thereof) in post-biblical Judaism.

-- The use of Genesis 12-25 (or a pericope thereof) in the Qur’an.

-- The use of a Gen 12-25 text/topic by a pre-critical theologian--Christian, Jewish, or Muslim.



IV. Class Schedule.


            Week 1. November 1.

                        Topic:  Introductory matters

Genesis 12:1-9; 15; 17:1-14


            Week 2. November 8

                        Topic: Genesis 12:10-20; 18-20.

                        Read:  Kaltner (pp. 9-25); Feiler (pp. 3-54, 189-218); and commentary introduction to Gen 12-25 and to these sections.


            Week 3. November 15.

                        Topic: Genesis 22

                        Read:  Phyllis Trible, “Genesis 22: The Sacrifice of Sarah”; Feiler (pp. 57-110) commentaries on Genesis 22.


Week 4.  November 29

                        Topic: Genesis 16; 17:15-18:15; 21:1-21; 25:1-18

                        Read: Commentaries; Kaltner (pp. 87-131); Feiler (pp. 113-185); Trible, “Hagar,” in Texts of Terror (pp. 9-35);


Week 5.  December 6.

                        Student Presentations


Week 6.  December 13.

                        Student Presentations    



V.  Grading.


a.  35% -- text papers and class discussion

b.  65% -- final paper and class presentation



VI. Contacts


      Wednesdays, 2:00-3:00 (or by appointment).

      Telephone:  651-641-3247

      Email:  tfrethei@luthersem.edu  (the best way to get in touch with me)

      FAX (fac sec):  651-641-3354




VII. Select Bibliography on Genesis (12-25).

For a bibliography of books and articles up to 1980, see Westermann, Genesis 12-36 (with each section); up to 1985, see Wenham, Genesis 1-15, and up to 1995, see Wenham, Genesis 16-50 (with each section).  In addition, see bibliographies in the studies below by Noort (on Genesis 22) and by Reeves (the Bible and the Qur’an).


A. Commentaries.  See also one-volume commentaries.

                Robert Alter. Genesis: A New Translation with Commentary, 1996.

                Joyce Baldwin, Genesis 12-50, 1983 (Tyndale).

                Paul Borg man, Genesis: The Story We Haven’t Heard, 2001.

                Thomas Brodie, Genesis as Dialogue, 2001

                Walter Brueggemann, Genesis, 1982 (Interpretation).

                David Cotter, Genesis (Berit Olam), 2003

                Robert Davidson, Genesis 12-50, 1979 (CBC).

                J. Fokkelman, Narrative Art in Genesis, 1975.

                Terence Fretheim, “The Book of Genesis,” NIB, I, 1994.

                J. Gibson, Genesis, 2 vols. 1981-82 (DSBS).

                Hermann Gunkel, Genesis (tr. M. Biddle), 1997.

                Victor Hamilton, The Book of Genesis, chaps. 1-17, 1990; Genesis 18-50, 1994 (NICOT).

                J. G. Janzen, Abraham and all the Families of the Earth: A Commentary on Genesis 12-50, 1993.

                C. Marshall, Genesis, 1999.

                Eugene Roop, Genesis, 1987.

                Nahum Sarna, Genesis, 1989 (JPS).

                W.S. Towner, Genesis, 2001.

                Bruce Vawter, On Genesis: A New Reading, 1977.

                G. von Rad, Genesis, rev. ed. 1972 (OTL).

                Gordon Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 1987 (WBC).

                Gordon Wenham, Genesis 16-50, 1995 (WBC).

                Claus Westermann, Genesis 12-36, 1985.

                Claus Westermann, Genesis: A Practical Commentary, 1987.


        B. Studies of special issues relating to Genesis 12-25.

                H. Abramovitch, The First Father: Abraham: The Psychology and Culture of a Spiritual Revolutionary, 1994.

                T.D.  Alexander, Abraham in the Negev: A Source-Critical Investigation of Genesis 20:1-22:19, 1997.

                Robert Alter,  The Art of Biblical Narrative (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1981).

                Mieke Bal (ed.), Anti-Covenant: Counter-Reading Women’s Lives in the Hebrew Bible, 1989

                A.O. Bellis, Helpmates, Harlots, and Heroes: Women’s Stories in the Hebrew Bible, 1994.

Louis Berman, The Akedah: The Binding of Isaac, 1997.

Joseph Blenkinsopp, The Pentateuch: An Introduction to the First Five Books of the Bible, 1992.

                Althalya Brenner, ed. A Feminist Companison to Genesis, 1993 and 1998.

                Althalya Brenner (ed.), A Feminist Companion to Genesis, 1993.

                Althalya Brenner (ed.), A Feminist Companion to the Bible (Second Series), 1998.

                James Bruckner, Implied Law in the Abraham Narrative: A Literary and Theological Analysis, 2001.

                Walter Brueggemann & H.W. Wolff, The Vitality of Old Testament Traditions. 2nd ed., 1982.

                Nancy Calvert-Koyzis, Paul, Monotheism and the People of God: The Significance of Abraham Traditions for

                                Early Judaism and Christianity, 2004.

                                     (This volume contains a major bibliography of New Testament studies on Abraham)

                David Carr, Reading the Fractures of Genesis: Historical and Literary Approaches,1996.

                Michael Caspi & Sascha Cohen, The Binding: Akedah and its Transformation in Judaism and Islam, 1995

                David Clines,  The Theme of the Pentateuch, 1978).

                David Clines, What Does Eve Do to Help? And Other Readerly Questions of the Old Testament, 1990.

George Coats, Genesis:  With an Introduction to Narrative Literature, 1983 (FOTL).

Norman Cohen, Self, Struggle & Change: Family Conflict Stories in Genesis and Their Healing Insights for 

                Our Lives, 1995.

James Crenshaw, A Whirlpool of Torment (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984).

Katheryn P. Darr, Far More Precious Than Jewels. Perspectives on Biblical Women (Louisville: Westminster/John Knox,


Philip Davies & David Clines, The World of Genesis, 1998.

                Peggy Day (ed.), Gender and Difference in Ancient Israel, 1989.

Carol Delaney, Abraham on Trial: The Social Legacy of Biblical Myth, 1998.

Trevor Dennis, And Sarah Laughed….???

Gustav Dreifuss and Judith Riemer, Abraham: The Man and The Symbol: A Jungian Interpretation of the

                Biblical Story, 1995.

Bruce Feiler, Abraham: A Journey to the Heart of Three Faiths, 2001.

Danna Fewell & David Gunn, Gender, Power, and Promise: The Subject of the Bible's First Story, 1993.

W. W. Fields, Sodom and Gomorrah: History and Motif in Biblical Narrative (Sheffield: Academic Press,


                J. Fokkelman, Narrative Art in Genesis, 1975.

                Jerome Gellman, Abraham! Abraham! Kierkegaard and the Hasidim on the Binding of Isaac, 2003.

                Neil Gordon, The Sacrifice of Isaac, 1995

                Hemchand Gossai, Power and Marginality in the Abraham Narrative, 1995

                R. Heard, Dynamics of Diselection: Ambiguity in Gen 12-36 & Ethnic Boundaries in Post-Exilic Judah, 2001

                R. Hess, G. Wenham, et al (eds.), He Swore and Oath: Biblical Themes from Genesis 12-50, 1994.

                Sharon Jeansonne, Women in Genesis: From Sarah to Potiphar’s Wife, 1990.

                John Kaltner, Ishamel instructs Isaac: An Introduction to the Qur’an for Bible Readers, 1999.

                K-J Kuschel, Abraham: Sign  of Hope for Jews, Christians, and Muslims, 1995.

                R. I. Letellier, Day in Mamre: Night in Sodom: Abraham and Lot in Genesis 18-19, 1995.

                Jon Levenson, The Death and Resurrection of the Beloved Son: the Transformation of Child Sacrifice in

                                Judaism and Christianity, 1993.

                Diana Lipton, Revisions of the Night: Politics and Promises in the Patriarchal Dreams of Genesis, 1999.

                J. Loader, A Tale of Two Cities: Sodom and Gomorrah in the OT, Early Jewish and Early Christian

                                Traditions, 1990.

                Martin Luther, Luther’s Works: Lectures on Genesis.

                W. J. Lyons, Canon and Exegesis: Canonical Praxis and the Sodom Narrative (London: Sheffield Academic

                                Press, 2002).

                Frederic Manns (ed.), The Sacrifice of Isaac in the Three Monotheistic Religions, 1995.

                Jo Milgrom, The Akedah:  A Primary Symbol in Jewish Thought and Art, 1988.

                A. R. Millerd & D. J. Wiseman, Essays on the Patriarchal Narrative, 1983.

                Alice Miller, The Untouched Key: Tracing Childhood Trauma in Creativity and Destructiveness, 1990.

                R. Moberly, The Bible, Theology, and Faith: A Study of Abraham and Jesus, 2000.

                R. Moberly, The Old Testament of the Old Testament: Patriarchal Narratives and Mosaic Yahwism,, 1992

                Bill Moyers, Genesis: A Living Conversation,1996.

                Susan Niditch, Underdogs and Tricksters: A Prelude to Biblical Folklore, 1987.

                E. Noort & E. Tigchelaar, eds., The Sacrifice of Isaac: The Aqedah (Genesis 22) and its Interpretations, 2002.

                                (This volume contains a major up-to-date bibliography on Genesis 22).

                E. Noort & E. Tigchelaar, eds., Sodom’s Sin: Genesis 18-19 and its Interpretations, 2004.

                A. Pagolu, The Religion of the Patriarchs, 1998.

                Raphael Patai, The Seed of Abraham: Jews and Arabs in Contact and Conflict, 1986.

                Paul Peachey, G. McLean and J. Kromkowski (eds.), Abrahamic Faiths: Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflicts, 1997.

                F. Peters, Children of Abraham, 1982.

                Public Affairs Television. Talking About Genesis: A Resource Guide, 1996.

                John Reeves, Bible and Qur’an: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality, 2003

                                (This volume contains a major up-to-date bibliography on this issue).

                John, Sailhamer, Genesis Unbound: A Provocative New Look at the Genesis Account, 1996.

                Nahum Sarna, Understanding Genesis, 1966.

                Tammi J. Schneider, Sarah: Mother of Nations (New York: Continuum, 2004).

                John van Seters, Abraham in History and Tradition, 1975

                Hershel Shanks, ed, Abraham and Family: New Insights into the Patriarchal Narratives, 2000.

                Jeffrey Siker, Disinheriting the Jews: Abraham in Early Christian Controversey, 1991.

                Shalom Spiegel, The Last Trial, 1967.

                Naomi Steinberg, Kinship and Marriage in Genesis: A Household Economics Perspective, 1993.

                Devora Steinmetz, From Father to Son: Kinship, Conflict, and Continuity in Genesis, 1991.

                Meir Sternberg,  The Poetics of Biblical Narrative, 1985.

                Savina Teubal, Hagar the Egyptian: The Lost Traditions of the Matriarchs, 1990.

                Savina Teubal, Sarah the Priestess: The First Matriarch of Genesis, 1984.

                Thomas L. Thompson, The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives, 1974.

                Phyllis Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality, 1978

                Phyllis Trible, Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives, 1984.

                Lawrence Turner,  Announcements of Plot in Genesis, 1990.

                Renita Weems, Just a Sister Away: A Womanist’s Vision of Women’s Relationships in the Bible, 1988.

                Claus Westermann, The Promises to the Fathers, 1980.

                Hugh White,  Narration and Discourse in the Book of Genesis, 1991.

                R. N. Whybray, Introduction to the Pentateuch, 1995.

                Elie Wiesel, Messengers of God: Biblical Portraits and Legends, 1976.

                Delores Williams, Sisters in the Wilderness: The Challenge of Womanist God-Talk, 1993.

                P.R. Williamson, Abraham, Israel and the Nations: Patriarchal Promise and its Covenantal Development in

                                Genesis, 2000.

                Robert Wilson, Genealogy and History in the Biblical World, 1977.       


C.       Articles of special interest regarding Genesis 12-25.

T.D. Alexander, “Abraham Re-assessed Theologically,” in He Swore an Oath, 7-28.

T.D. Alexander, “The Hagar Traditions in Genesis xvi and xxi,” in J. Emerson (ed.), Studies in the Pentateuch  (1990)   


Robert Alter, “Sodom as Nexus: The Web of Design in Biblical Narrative,” in R. Schwarz (ed.), The Book and the Text

                 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990), 146-60.

                Bernhard Anderson, “Abraham, the Friend of God,” Interpretation 42 (1988) 353-66.

                Erich Auerbach, “Odysseus’s Scar,” in Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature (Princeton:

                                Princeton University Press, 1953), 1-19?

                William Baird, “Abraham in the New Testament,” Interp 42 (1988) 367-79.

                Lyn Bechtel, “A Feminist Reading of Genesis 19:1-11,” A Feminist Companion to Genesis, Second Series (ed. A. Brenner;

                                Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998), 108-28.

                Lyn Bechtel, “Boundary Issues in Genesis 19:1-38,” in Escaping Eden: New Feminist Perspectives on the Bible, H.

                                Washington, et al., eds., 1998.

         Ehud Ben Zvi, “The Dialogue between Abraham and YHWH in Gen. 18:23-32: A Historical-critical Analysis,”

                                JSOT 53 (1992) 27-46.

                Elizabeth Bettenhausen, “Hagar Revisited: Surrogacy, Alienation, and Motherhood,” CC 47 (1989) 159.

                Mark Biddle, “The ‘Endangered Ancestress’ and Blessing for the Nations,” JBL 109 (1990) 599-611.

                Joseph Blenkinsopp, “Abraham and the Righteous of Sodom,” JJS 33 (1982) 119-132.

                Lipmann Bodoff, “The Real Test of the Akedah:  Blind Obedience Versus Moral Choice,” Judaism,  42 (1993) 71-92.

                Paul Borgman, “Letting Go of Fear: The Love of Abraham,” Perspectives  17 (2002) 21-23.

                Sidney Breithart, “The Akedah:  A Test of God,” Dor le Dor 15 (1996) 19-28.

                Mark Brett, “Abraham’s ‘Heretical’ Imperative: A Response to Jacques Derrida,” in C. Cosgrove (ed.) The

                                Meaning  We Choose:  Hermeneutical Eth cs, Indeterminacy, and the Conflict of Interpretations, 166-78.

                Walter Brueggemann, “’Impossibility’ and Epistemology in the Faith Tradition of Abraham and Sarah (Gen. 18:1-15),”

                                ZAW 94 (1982) 615-634.

                Donald Capps, “Abraham and Isaac: The Sacrificial Impulse,” in The Destructive Power of Religion: Violence in

                                Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, vol. 1: Sacred Scriptures, Ideology, and Violence, ed. J. H. Ellens (Westport,

                                CT: Praeger, 2004), 170-189.

                E.A. Castelli, “Allegories of Hagar: Reading Genesis 4:21-31 with Postmodern Feminist Eyes,” in E. Malbon

                                & E. McKnight, The New Literary Criticism and the New Testament (1994) 228-250.

                Ronald Clements, “Abraham,” TDOT, 1:52-58.

                David Clines, “The Ancestor in Danger, but not the same Danger,” in What does Eve do to Help?, 67-84.

                George Coats, “Abraham’s Sacrifice of Faith: A Form-critical Study of Genesis 22,” Interp 27 (1973) 389-400.

                G. Coats, “Lot: A Foil in the Abraham Saga,” in J. Butler, et al. (eds.), Understanding the Word (Sheffield:

                                JSOT Press, 1985), 113-132.

                J. M. Cohen, “Was Abraham Heartless?” JBQ 23 (1995) 180-81.

                Alan Cooper, “Hagar in and out of Context,” USQR 55 (2001) 38….?

F.M. Cross, “Yahweh and the God of the Patriarchs,” HTR, 55 (1962) 225-259.

                Douglas Crow, “The Amplification of Abraham in Islam,” in Face to Face, pp. 21-28.

                Robert Daly, “The Soteriological Significance of the Sacrifice of Isaac,” CBQ 39 (1977) 45-75.

Ellen Davis, “’Take Your Son’: The Binding of Isaac,” in Getting Involved with God: Rediscovering the Old

                Testament, 2001, 50-64.

                David DeSilva, “Why Did God Choose Abraham?”  BR 16 (2000) 16-21, 42-44.

                Fokkelien van Dijk-Hemmes, “Sarai’s Exile: A Gender-Motivated Reading of Genesis 12:10-13:2,” in A Feminine

                                Companion to Genesis, 2 , ed. A. Brenner (Sheffield: Academic Press, 1997),  222-234.

                Barry Eichler, “On Reading Genesis 12:10-20,” in Tehillah le-Moshe: Biblical and Judaic Studies in Honor of Moshe

                                Greenberg, eds. M. Cogan, B. L. Eichler, & J. H. Tigay (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997) 23-38.

                R. Eisen, “The Education of Abraham: The Encounter Between Abraham and God Over the Fate of Sodom and Gomorrah,”

                                JBQ 28 (2000) 80-86.

                Cheryl Exum, “The Mothers of Israel: Patriarchal Narratives from a Feminist Perspective,” BR 2 (1986) 60-67.

                Cheryl Exum, “Who’s Afraid of ‘The Endangered Ancestress?” in Women in the Hebrew Bible: A Reader, ed. A. Bach

                                (New York: Routledge, 1999). 141-156.

Face to Face: an Interreligious Bulletin, 12 (1986) – issue is devoted to Abraham in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Danna Fewell, “Changing the Subject: Retelling the Story of Hagar the Egyptians,” in A. Brenner (ed.),  Genesis:

                The Feminist Companion to the Bible (Second Series),  (Sheffield, 1998), 182-94

                R. Firestone, “Abraham’s Son as the Intended Sacrifice (al-Dhabih, Qur’an 37:99-113,” JSS 34 (1989) 95-131.

                T. Fretheim, “God, Abraham, and the Abuse of Isaac,” W&W  1996

                Tikva Frymer-Kensky, “Hagar, My Other, Myself,” in Reading the Women of the Bible: A New Interpretation of

                                Their Stories, 2002.

                John Goldingay, “The Patriarchs in Scripture and History,” in Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives (eds.

                                A. Millard & D. Wiseman, 1983.

                John Goldingay, “’You are Abraham’s Offspring, My Friend’:  Abraham in Isaiah 41,” in He Swore An Oath: Biblical

                                Themes from Genesis 12-50, eds. R. Hess, et al (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994), 29-54.

                M. Goshen-Gottstein, “Abraham and ‘Abrahamic Religions’ in Contemporary Interreligious Discourse:

                                Reflections of an Implicated Jewish Bystander,” Studies in Interreligious Dialogue 12 (2002) 165-83.

                M. Goshen-Gottstein, “Abraham—Lover or Beloved of God” in Love and Death in the Ancient Near East, eds.

                                J. H. Marks & R. M. Good (Guilford, CT: Four Quarters, 1987) 101-104.

                J. A. Hackett, “Rehabilitating Hagar: Fragments of an Epic Pattern,” in Gender and Difference in Ancient Israel,”

                                Ed. P. Day (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1989), 12-27.

                C. Hayward, “The Sacrifice of Isaac and Jewish Polemic Against Christianity,” CBQ 52 (1990) 291-306.

                R. Haywood, “The Present State of Research into the Targumic Account of the Sacrifice of Isaac,” JJS

                                32 (1981) 127-150.

                L. Helyer, “The Separation of Abram & Lot: Significance in the Patriarchal Narratives, JSOT 26 (1983) 77-78.

                M. Jackson, “Lot’s Daughters and Tamar as Tricksters and the Patriarchal Narratives as Feminist Theology,”

                                JSOT 98 (2002) 29-46.

                J.G. Janzen, “Hagar in Paul’s Eyes and in the Eyes of Yahweh (Genesis 16), HBT (1991) 1-22.

                Brigitte Kahl, “Hagar between Genesis and Galatians: The Stony Road to Freedom,” in C.A. Evans (ed.),

                                From Prophecy to Testament: The Function of the Old Testament in the New (2004), 219-232.

                Pinchas Kahn, “The Mission of Abraham: Genesis 18:17-22:19,” JBQ 30 (2002) 155-63.

                John Kaltner, “Abraham’s Sons: How Bible and Qur’an See the Same Story Differently,” BR 18 (2002) 16-23.

                Ralph Klein, “Call, Covenant, and Community,” CurTM 15 (1988) 120-27.

                M.J. Kohn, “The Trauma of Isaac,” JBQ (1991-92) 96-104.

                Phyllis S. Kramer, “The Dismissal of Hagar in Five Art Works of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,’

                                in A. Brenner (ed.), Genesis: The Femini st Companion to the Bible (Second Series), 1998, 195-217.

                Carol LaHurd, “One God, one Father: Abraham in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam,” Dialog 29 (1990) 17-28.

                Jacqueline Lapsley, “Friends with God?  Moses and the Possibility of Covenant Friendship,” Interp 58 (2004).

                Jon Levenson, “Abusing Abraham: Traditions, Religious Histories, and Modern Misinterpretations,”

                                Judaism 47 (1998) 259-277

                Jon Levenson, “The Conversion of Abraham to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam,” in The Idea of Biblical

                                Interpretation: Essays in Honor of James L. Kugel (2004), 3-40.

                Curt Leviant, “Parallel Loves: The Trials and Traumas of Isaac and Ishmael,” BR 15 (1999) 47….?

                Sol Liptzin, “Princess Hagar,” in Biblical Themes in World Literature (1985) 39-53.

                J. R. Lundbom, “Parataxis, Rhetorical Structure and the Dialogue over Sodom in Genesis 18,” in The World

                                of Genesis, eds. P. R. Davies & D. J. A. Clines (Sheffield: Academic Press, 1998) 136-145.

                Nathan Macdonald, “Listening to Abraham—Listening to Yahweh: Divine Justice and Mercy in Genesis

                                18:16-33,” CBQ 66 (2004) 25-43.

                Nathan Macdonald, “Abraham’s Purchase of the Cave of Machpelah and Anthropological Theories of

                                Exchange,” in Anthropology and Biblical Studies: The Way Forward, eds. M. I. Aguilar & L. J.

                                Lawrence (Leiden: Deo, 2004)…..?

                Thomas Mann, “All the Families of the Earth: The Theological Unity of Genesis,” Interp 45 (1991) 341-353.

                Frederic Manns, “Note on the Sacrifice of Isaac in the Fourth Gospel, “ in Manns (ed.),

                J.L. Martyn, “The Covenants of Hagar and Sarah,” in J. Carroll, et al. (eds.) Faith and History (1990) 160-192.

                V. H. Matthews, “Hospitality and Hostility in Genesis 19 and Judges 19,” BTB, 22 (1992) 3-11.

                J. Gordon McConville, “Abraham and Melchizedek: Horizons in Genesis 14,” in He Swore an Oath, 93-118.

                S. Mleynek, “Abraham, Aristotle, and God: the Poetics of Sacrifice,” JAAR 62 (1994) 107-121.

                R.W.L. Moberly, “The Earliest Commentary on the Akedah,” VT  (1988) 302-323.

                Howard Moltz, “God and Abraham in the Binding of Isaac,” JSOT 96 (2001) 55-69.

                Julius Moster, “The Testing of Abraham,” Dor le Dor  17 (1989) 237-42.

                J. H. Newman, “Lot in Sodom: The Postmortem of a City and the Afterlife of a Biblical Text,” in C. A. Evans

                                & J. A. Sanders (eds.), The Function of Scripture in Early Jewish and Christian Tradition (Sheffield:

                                Academic Press, 1998) 34-44.

                Scott Nikudo, “Hagar and Ishmael as Literary Figures: An Intertextual Study,” VT 51 (2001) 222…?

                Robert Polzin, “The Ancestress of Israel in Danger,” Semeia, 3 (1975) 81-98.

                P.T. Reis, “Hagar Requited,” JSOT 87 (2000) 75-109.

                Moshe Reiss, “Ishmael: Son of Abraham,” JBQ 30 (2002) 253-56

                C. S. Rodd, “Shall Not the Judge of All the Earth Do Right?” ExpTim 105 (1994) 211-212.

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